A family without children can hardly be called a full and happy family. Unfortunately, not all couples are able to conceive. If pregnancy does not occur within one year of regular sexual intercourse without using contraception, then like a menacing cloud hangs over this family was diagnosed – “sterility”. According to statistics, every fifth couple can not conceive.
Somehow it happened that in the absence of children in the family often blame the woman. How insulting epithets coined for these were already unhappy frustrated mom: empty shell, …. But scientifically proven that the woman “guilty” in the family misfortune only 5% more often than men, and 15% of infertility is the result of violations of both spouses.
In addition, pregnancy can not occur in completely healthy couples in which neither the husband nor the wife has no abnormalities in the structure or genitals, or in their functioning. Moreover, a woman of this couple is quite capable of having a child, but not from the man, as well as man, by selecting a different spouse, may without difficulty be a father. Sometimes (3% of infertility cases) due to the fact that the female body begins to produce special proteins – antibodies that immobilize sperm entering the female genital tract. This is called immunologic incompatibility.
But even in healthy and compatible couples may have trouble conceiving a baby who will not be able to explain even the wisest and most experienced researchers doctors. The frequency of such forms of infertility - “unexplained” or “idiopathic” – reaches 4-10% of all cases.
Infertility – the inability to conceive of a mature body – can occur at any stage of life, sometimes after one or even ten pregnancies in the past. Others have had no steam and only chance to become a mother and father.
At the same time infertility can be a relative, in other words, we can in some way to remove its cause, and soon the light will be a new, completely unique and unrepeatable person. But in those cases where it is impossible to conceive naturally (no uterus, ovaries, some malformations of genitals female or male) sterility – absolutely. For example, the absolute cause of male infertility can be carried over into adolescence or adulthood, “pig” (mumps). The infection is often complicated by the cessation of sperm production.
The reasons leading to the development of infertility, a lot, and have the same pair may be several at the same time, so it is difficult sometimes to find the cause of this condition and find effective treatment.
According to the World Health Organization there are approximately 16 causes of male infertility. Most often it occurs in violation of the formation of sex cells – sperm or pathological sperm allocation of male body.
In a study of men attending the same problem, paying special attention to the analysis of semen (sperm). At the same time assess the volume, as well as some physical and chemical properties of semen, sperm count in it, their mobility, structure, and more.
The most common causes leading to infertility in men include:
- spermatoschesis – the absence of the ejaculate
- azoospermia – not having any measurable level of sperm in his semen.
- oligozoospermia – refers to semen with a low concentration of sperm
- asthenozoospermia – reduced sperm motility.
Most often, these disorders are associated with inflammatory diseases of male genital organs, including the central role played by infection. But sometimes infertility – the result of defects or lack of development of the male reproductive system.
Not uncommon for boys such pathology, as cryptorchidism, which subsequently also cause an inability to conceive. The fact is that for the normal development of sperm requires a lower temperature than that which takes place inside the human body. This is probably why nature designed so that the testicles, where the formation of male germ cells, even during fetal development is gradually removed from the boy’s tummy and his time of birth are a special body – the scrotum. At the same cryptorchidism at birth of the child one or both testicles in the scrotum did not fall, causing disorders of spermatogenesis. Fortunately, today worked out special operations, which resulted in the testis has a definite place by nature.
All diseases that lead to male infertility can be divided into 5 main group:
- Prostatitis, urethritis and other inflammatory diseases of the genital organs of men.
- Seminiferous tubules and obstruction of ducts, where it becomes impossible to free transport of sperm from the testicles to the female genital tract. Most often, such as bruises and injuries result in the testes, congenital malformations, as well as all of the same inflammatory process, resulting in partial or complete luminal seminiferous tubules imperforate. Outwardly, it may not appear, men, sexual activity is not affected. Only a special analysis of the ejaculate will detect the absence or reduced content of sperm in it.
- Varicose veins of the spermatic cord (varicocele), leads to the fact that he suffered from stagnant circulation and blood within the testis, which is certainly detrimental to the education of male germ cells – sperm cells.
- Disorders of hormonal regulation, both at the level of synthesis and release of specific chemical compounds by the brain that controls the work of the testes, and at the level of the testes, which begin to produce testosterone in insufficient quantities.
- Sexual dysfunction, including first place imposed impotence, that is, failure to sexual intercourse. While this is not the only disease causing infertility. There is also, for example, retrograde ejaculation in which semen is carried out not release to the outside (in the genital tract of women), but in the opposite direction – into the bladder, which is also one of the causes of male infertility.