The nine months of pregnancy, the expectant mother finds many reasons to experience, the real and imaginary. She suffers from toxicosis, listening to the perturbation of the baby, worried about the test results immediately after delivery, following the tone of the uterus, is looking forward to the next ultrasound to look at the crumb, and hear the doctor’s words that the pregnancy is proceeding normally.
Among the potential cause for concern is a fairly strong, but, unfortunately, know about it, not every expectant mother. According to figures announced at a press conference at the Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology – about 20% of the reason for the loss of the child is premature rupture of membranes.But the chance to detect and avoid danger at an early stage is still there.
Membranes: three layers of protection of the fetus
During the first nine months of pregnancy, fetal membrane – a comfortable and safe place for baby. In this small world of the child becomes a microscopic miniature, but fully man, ready to step into a new, yet unknown world to him . And so for 40 weeks, nothing disturbed the full development of the fetus, nature takes care of its robust security.
Fetal membranes protect the baby from infections and bacteria. Despite their seeming transparency on the screen during the ultrasound, the shell is actually a very dense and strong.With their help, nature protects crumbs from external influence of aggressive environment with three protective layers:-
- The first layer – the outer. It is formed from the tissue that lines the uterus. It is the most durable, as required to ensure sufficient rigidity of the shell, so no external aggressive conditions are not able to deform the developing fetus;
- The second layer – the middle. It consists of cells of the embryo, are also quite durable;
- The third layer – the inner one. It is the most delicate and flexible. Its characteristics similar to a light haze and gently protects the fetus.
Reliability and integrity of the membranes – a pledge of sterility and, accordingly, the qualitative development of the baby. And if some of the layers is deformed, there is a risk of infection and of complications during pregnancy.
Among pregnant women gynecologists release category that need to be especially attentive to the symptoms of premature rupture of membranes:
- If mom is waiting for two or more babies;
- A pregnant woman identified infectious disease that thins fetal membranes;
- Mom suffers from abnormalities of the cervix;
- During pregnancy a woman regularly complains of feeling unwell, pain , severity of abdominal cramping and feeling;
- Future mothers, who while waiting for the baby in the fall received an injury or concussion. Despite being outwardly normal pregnancy, fetal membranes may be damaged. Crack in this case accompanied by an explicit or implicit Leaking amniotic fluid;
- If the previous pregnancy there is premature rupture of membranes;
- Expectant mothers suffering from vitamin deficiency or underweight;
- pregnant smokers . Inability to give up cigarettes during childbearing can cause not only rupture of membranes, but also have a negative impact on the qualitative development of the future baby.
Clinical management of rupture at various stages of pregnancy
Unfortunately, the premature rupture of membranes are not insured, even those women whose pregnancy is ideal. According to statistics, it occurs in one out of ten mothers, while modern medicine can not answer the question, what it provokes.
Even the cracks in the fetal membrane is sufficient to numerous bacteria from the vagina and cervix started to actively enter into its cavity. Unborn child in this case is defenseless, begins infection of the fetus and the uterus, which leads to tragic consequences: the death of the baby from intrauterine infection, and severe septic complications in the mother.
Premature rupture of membranes in the event of premature pregnancy requires urgent medical intervention. The tactics of treatment depends on the gestational age and the presence of infection.
If the gap identified in early pregnancy and risk of infection is minimized, the expectant mother being prescribed antibiotics, tocolytics and steroids to prolong pregnancy. In this case, it is important to follow the recommendations of doctors and undergo regular ultrasound examinations to monitor the status of the child.
If the break occurred late in pregnancy, but no threat of infection of the fetus, doctors begin treatment to stabilize the pregnancy. Expectant mother is in hospital in a perfect sterility, because her condition requires careful monitoring. Conducted thermometry and prevention of infections, blood tests, bacteriological tests of vaginal contents, is controlled by the fetus in order to avoid violations of hypoxia and uteroplacental circulation.
If detected at later stages of infection, doctors often choose to cause premature labor. Pregnant at first prescribe antibiotics, and then create a hormonal environment and labor induction is carried out.
At a later period, that is actually in full-term pregnancy, followed by amniorrhea usually develops labor. Expectant mother may suffer from prolonged and painful birth. With prolonged rupture of membranes is a risk of fetal hypoxia and inflammation of the membranes.
Suspicion of ruptured membranes: what to do?
During pregnancy, the expectant mother is important to monitor the volume and nature of vaginal discharge. It is clear that the physiological processes during gestation baby changing, but to control their condition is important, especially if the expectant mother is at risk.
A characteristic symptom of fetal membrane rupture is the allocation of liquid without the characteristic color and flavor. Massive water separation does not occur, they ooze a little, mixed with vaginal secretions, so not every pregnant woman pays attention to it. However, at this time the baby is in serious danger, since it is not protected from intrauterine infection.
Moreover, when the leakage of amniotic fluid is more than 32 hours, and pregnant does not address health care, prenatal infection in the fetus develops in 100% of cases. If, however, promptly appoint a performance-enhancing drugs, the fetus may develop adaptive mechanisms necessary for spontaneous breathing, maintaining their livelihoods through the placenta.
Launched rupture of membranes may make itself felt unusual sensations and pain in the abdomen. In this case, an urgent need to go to the doctor, even if the symptoms after the study would be a false alarm. It is important to know and understand that the treatment was started in the first days after the break, may save the life of the future baby’s health and his mother.
Test for rupture of membranes : the prevention issues
Timely diagnosis of rupture of the membranes to help save the life of the baby. Unfortunately, many hospitals today are not able to qualitatively and quickly identify the problem. Practiced methods of investigation of amniotic fluid to determine the level of acidity and alkalinity, as well as a smear of vagina with her visual inspection does not always give the correct result. Sadly, but the price is incorrect diagnosis – a child’s life, and perhaps his mother.
As an alternative to outdated methods from 2010 introduced a new method of diagnosing rupture of fetal membranes – the test system AmniSure, which has been used successfully in 55 countries, including in the EU and the U.S.. With it accurately and quickly identify the placental alpha microglobulin-1 contained only in the amniotic fluid and absent in vaginal secretions, blood, urine and other body fluids of pregnant women.
Interestingly, the testing may be done at home from the second trimester of pregnancy. According to statistics, 4% of pregnant women during this period and learn about the possible danger for the healthy development of their child.
And if the result is negative, it means that you can enjoy a good course of pregnancy: wait for the long-awaited meeting with the future of the baby every morning to greet him and wish for a pleasant day, more than a walk in the fresh air, eat a balanced, to get positive emotions, promptly see a doctor and do not create another reason for testing preterm fetal treatment.